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  1. #1

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    ...


    ..

    ..... ....


    ..


    : " " ...



    ..

    .: " "


    ...

    ѡ ...



    : ( ) .
    ....
    ..
    ( perfume ) ( per fumum )

    ( ) ... ....




  2. #2

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( perfumes )

    1 ? :

    ... ...

    2 ? :

    ..

    3 - :

    ..



    :

    ?????? Parfum

    20 ? 22 %
    ....



    ? Eau de Parfum

    15 - 20 %


    ???.. Eau de toilette

    : 8 - 15%


    .. Eau de Cologne

    : 4%



    .. Volatile Oils ( ) Etherial Oil ( ) Essential Oils ... 2000 ...





    . ...
    ... ..







  3. #3

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    :

    ...

    ..
    80 300 ( ) ..

    .. " Lavender "





    .. ..


    . ..





  4. #4

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Terpenes )

    ...

    ...
    ( limonene ) ( 90% ) ( pinene ) ( ( pine ) ( turpentine oil ) ..
    : chamazulene farnesol ( " chamomile essence " ) ....



    C5H8

    :

    1. : ( , ) : , , , .

    2. : : , .

    3 . : .
    . : , , .

    4 . : , .
    " "
    .

    ,, " "
    .

    :

    :

    1 . .
    2 . .
    3 . .


    ; 11-03-11 03:19 PM



  5. #5

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Esters )

    : ( linalyl acetate )
    ( " clary sage " " " lavender ")

    ( geranyl acetate ) " " " sweet marjoram"..
    ..








    • :

    • refresh

    refresh




  6. #6

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Aldehdes )

    : "lemongrass " "citronella" ...

    .

    ϡ R-CHO .

    R . "" .



    . .


    (). ڤ . RCHO R . CH3CHO.


    {C=O}. .


    ; 11-03-11 03:36 PM



  7. #7

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Ketones )


    .. ....

    : " Mugwort " " tansy " " wormwood " ...


    " Jasmone " " fenchone " " sweet fennel " ...
    ..


    .
    :

    R1(CO)R2.


    ʡ . .

    () :

    α-carbon.
    α-hydrogen.




  8. #8

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ..( Alcohols )


    " linalool "( )
    " citronellol " ( " rose " " lemon " )

    " ( " geranium " ....

    ...


    Alcohol



    ( OH ) ROH .

    CH3OH .


    Primaryalcohol

    :RCH2OH
    : CH3CH2OH

    Secondaryalcohol


    2-

    Tertiary alcohol


    2-

    Absolute alcohol
    .



  9. #9

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Phenol )





    ..

    ....

    : ) eugenol )

    thymol ...

    : anethol estraole ....



    .



    :



    1) .


    2) Phenol carboxylic acid cooh .

    3) phenylpropanes . .

    4) Flaven derivatives B,A .

    .

    phenols Biosynthesis

    Aromatic system .
    :
    1) The shikimic acid pathway
    2) The Acetate malonate pathway

    : The shikimic acid pathway

    .
    glycolysis
    4-- pentose cycle 5- dehydroquinic acid quinic acid .

    chorismic acid Anthranilic acid IAA . prephonic acid .

    :

    1) .
    2)
    3)

    4) Benzoquinones hydroxyphenylpyrovate plastoquinone .

    The Acetate malonatepathway


    Acetyle CoA Acetyle Co A MalonylCo A .

    MalonylCo A decarboxylation Acetyle Co A polyketo acid cyclize phloroglucinol.


    .


    1- Cinnamic acids

    .

    Oxidation and deamination . Caffeic acid Chlorogenic acid .


    2- Coumarins


    0 .
    . . Synergesting effect IAA oxidase

    3- : Lignin

    Freudenberg & Nrish 1968 Phenylpropane
    Coumaricacid Coniferic acid Sinepic acid

    NADPH2 dehydropolymerization phenol oxidase , peroxides .


    4- : phenolcarboxylic acids


    p-hydroxybenzoic acid Hydroquinone Gallic acid .


    5- Flavones Derivatives

    Flavus :
    A . Flavan 3-ols,, Flavan 3,4diols .

    .

    B .

    (I5C) 3 Malonyl CoA Cinnamoyl CoA ( CoA ) Hypothetical Chalcone Flavone




  10. #10

    Nov 2010
    3,436

    : ...

    ( Oxides )



    rosemary " tea tree " " cajuput " ..
    : " eucalyptus " ...


    ..
    .. .. ...

    ....





: 1 (0 1 )

  1. : 39
    : 12-08-23, 08:12 PM
  2. : 17
    : 12-04-03, 12:19 PM
  3. FOREX
    : 0
    : 11-06-12, 06:40 PM
  4. kooora
    : 0
    : 11-02-10, 11:08 AM
  5. () naturopathy
    : 5
    : 11-02-03, 09:55 PM

: 1

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